Influenza (flu) and your baby

KEY POINTS

  • The flu can be dangerous for all babies, even healthy babies.
  • Babies younger than 6 months are too young to get their own flu shot. Parents and other family members should get vaccinated to protect young babies.  

  • Babies older than 6 months need a flu vaccination every year. 

  • If you think your baby has the flu, call her provider right away. Quick treatment can help prevent serious flu complications. 

What is the flu?

Influenza (also called flu) is a serious disease. It’s more than just a runny nose and sore throat. The flu can make a baby very sick. It’s really important for babies and young children to be protected from the flu. 

How does the flu spread?

The flu spreads easily from person to person. When someone with the flu coughs, sneezes or speaks, the virus spreads through the air. Your baby can get infected with the flu if she breathes the virus in or if she touches something (like a toy) that has the flu virus on it and then touches her nose, eyes or mouth.

Does your baby need the flu vaccine?

Yes. The best way to protect your baby from the flu is to make sure he gets a flu vaccine each year before flu season (October through May). Even though he’s more likely to get the flu during flu season, he can get it any time of year. A vaccine is medicine that makes you immune to certain infections. If you’re immune to an infection, you can’t get that infection.

There are two kinds of flu vaccines:

  1. Flu shot. Children older than 6 months can get the flu shot.
  2. Flu mist. This is a nasal spray (a spray you put in the nose). Children older than 2 years can get the flu mist unless they have certain health conditions (like asthma or heart and lung problems) or are taking certain medicines for a long time, like aspirin (called long-term aspirin therapy).

Talk to your baby’s provider about which vaccine is best for your baby. Or visit flu.gov. Your baby gets two doses of the flu vaccine in his first year life. He then gets one dose each year after. 

The flu vaccine is safe for most children. But check with his provider if your baby had a reaction to the flu vaccine in the past. His provider may want to watch him closely after getting the vaccine to check for a reaction. If your child is allergic to eggs, talk to his provider to decide if it’s OK to get the flu vaccine. Some flu vaccines are made without eggs so they’re safe for people with egg allergies.

There are many different flu viruses, and they’re always changing. Each year a new flu vaccine is made to protect against three or four flu viruses that are likely to make people sick during the upcoming flu season. Protection from the flu vaccine only lasts about a year, so it’s important that your baby gets vaccinated every year. You can get the vaccine from your baby’s health care provider. Many pharmacies and other places also offer it each fall. Use the HealthMap Vaccine Finder to find out where you can get a flu vaccine for your baby. 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend that everyone older than 6 months get the flu vaccine each year. It’s especially important for children younger than 5 to get the vaccine because they’re more likely than older kids to have serious health problems caused by the flu. The flu can be dangerous for all children, even healthy children. About 2 in 5 children (40 percent) who die from flu complications don’t have other chronic health problems, like asthma, heart disease or diabetes.

How do you know if your baby has the flu?

Your baby may have the flu if she has any of these signs or symptoms: 

  • Fever or chills 
  • Cough or sore throat 
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Headache or muscle or body aches 
  • Being tired
  • Not being hungry
  • Vomiting and diarrhea

Fever and most other symptoms can last a week or longer. If you think your baby has the flu even if he got the flu vaccine, call her health care provider.

Call your baby’s provider right away if she has any of these signs or symptoms:

  • Fast breathing or trouble breathing 
  • Bluish skin color 
  • Not drinking enough fluids 
  • Not waking up or not interacting with you
  • Being so fussy that she doesn’t want to be held 
  • Flu symptoms that improve but return with fever and worse cough 
  • Fever with a rash 

How is flu treated?

Your baby’s provider may prescribe an antiviral medicine to prevent or treat the flu. An antiviral is a medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. For flu, antivirals work best if used within 2 days of getting sick. 

If your baby is at high risk for flu, his provider may prescribe an antiviral as soon as he begins to have flu symptoms. All children younger than 5 are at high risk for flu, especially children younger than 2. Children who were born prematurely (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or who have chronic health conditions, like asthma or sickle cell disease, also are at high risk.

Two medicines are approved in the United States for preventing or treating the flu in children:

  1. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) for children as young as 2 weeks  
  2. Zanamivir (Relenza®) for children older than 5  

If your child has the flu, help him get lots of rest and drink plenty of fluids. He may not want to eat much. Try giving him small meals to help his body get better.

If your baby seems uncomfortable from a fever, ask her provider if you can give her infant’s or children’s acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or ibuprofen (Motrin® or Advil®). Don’t give her aspirin without checking with her health care provider. Aspirin can cause a rare but life-threatening liver disorder called Reye syndrome in children with certain illnesses, such as colds, the flu and chickenpox. If your baby has a cough or a cold, don’t give her over-the-counter cough and cold medicine. These are medicines you can buy without a prescription from a health care provider. The American Academy of Pediatrics says these medicines can cause serious health problems for children. Talk to your baby’s provider before you give your baby any kind of medicine. 

How can you and your baby keep from spreading the flu? 

Everyone older than 6 months needs to get the flu vaccine. This means you, especially if you have or take care of a baby younger than 6 months. Babies this age are too young to get the flu vaccine. Getting the vaccine can help keep you from spreading the flu.

If you or your baby has the flu, you can spread it to others. Here’s how to help prevent the flu from spreading:

  • Don’t kiss your baby on or around the mouth. But a hug is a good thing!
  • Teach your child to cough or sneeze into a tissue or his arm. Throw used tissues in the trash.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before and after caring for your baby. You also can use alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Use enough hand sanitizer so that it takes at least 15 seconds for your hands to dry. 
  • Use hot, soapy water or a dishwasher to clean your baby’s dishes and utensils.
  • Don’t share any of your baby’s dishes, glasses, utensils or his toothbrush. 
  • Limit your baby’s contact with other people. 

More information

See also: Flu and pregnancyYour baby’s vaccinations

Last reviewed: September, 2015

What is the flu?

Influenza (also called flu) is a serious disease. It’s more than just a runny nose and sore throat. The flu can make a baby very sick. It’s really important for babies and young children to be protected from the flu. 

How does the flu spread?

The flu spreads easily from person to person. When someone with the flu coughs, sneezes or speaks, the virus spreads through the air. Your baby can get infected with the flu if she breathes the virus in or if she touches something (like a toy) that has the flu virus on it and then touches her nose, eyes or mouth.

Does your baby need the flu vaccine?

Yes. The best way to protect your baby from the flu is to make sure he gets a flu vaccine each year before flu season (October through May). Even though he’s more likely to get the flu during flu season, he can get it any time of year. A vaccine is medicine that makes you immune to certain infections. If you’re immune to an infection, you can’t get that infection.

There are two kinds of flu vaccines:

  1. Flu shot. Children older than 6 months can get the flu shot.
  2. Flu mist. This is a nasal spray (a spray you put in the nose). Children older than 2 years can get the flu mist unless they have certain health conditions (like asthma or heart and lung problems) or are taking certain medicines for a long time, like aspirin (called long-term aspirin therapy).

Talk to your baby’s provider about which vaccine is best for your baby. Or visit flu.gov. Your baby gets two doses of the flu vaccine in his first year life. He then gets one dose each year after. 

The flu vaccine is safe for most children. But check with his provider if your baby had a reaction to the flu vaccine in the past. His provider may want to watch him closely after getting the vaccine to check for a reaction. If your child is allergic to eggs, talk to his provider to decide if it’s OK to get the flu vaccine. Some flu vaccines are made without eggs so they’re safe for people with egg allergies.

There are many different flu viruses, and they’re always changing. Each year a new flu vaccine is made to protect against three or four flu viruses that are likely to make people sick during the upcoming flu season. Protection from the flu vaccine only lasts about a year, so it’s important that your baby gets vaccinated every year. You can get the vaccine from your baby’s health care provider. Many pharmacies and other places also offer it each fall. Use the HealthMap Vaccine Finder to find out where you can get a flu vaccine for your baby. 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend that everyone older than 6 months get the flu vaccine each year. It’s especially important for children younger than 5 to get the vaccine because they’re more likely than older kids to have serious health problems caused by the flu. The flu can be dangerous for all children, even healthy children. About 2 in 5 children (40 percent) who die from flu complications don’t have other chronic health problems, like asthma, heart disease or diabetes.

How do you know if your baby has the flu?

Your baby may have the flu if she has any of these signs or symptoms: 

  • Fever or chills 
  • Cough or sore throat 
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Headache or muscle or body aches 
  • Being tired
  • Not being hungry
  • Vomiting and diarrhea

Fever and most other symptoms can last a week or longer. If you think your baby has the flu even if he got the flu vaccine, call her health care provider.

Call your baby’s provider right away if she has any of these signs or symptoms:

  • Fast breathing or trouble breathing 
  • Bluish skin color 
  • Not drinking enough fluids 
  • Not waking up or not interacting with you
  • Being so fussy that she doesn’t want to be held 
  • Flu symptoms that improve but return with fever and worse cough 
  • Fever with a rash 

How is flu treated?

Your baby’s provider may prescribe an antiviral medicine to prevent or treat the flu. An antiviral is a medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. For flu, antivirals work best if used within 2 days of getting sick. 

If your baby is at high risk for flu, his provider may prescribe an antiviral as soon as he begins to have flu symptoms. All children younger than 5 are at high risk for flu, especially children younger than 2. Children who were born prematurely (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or who have chronic health conditions, like asthma or sickle cell disease, also are at high risk.

Two medicines are approved in the United States for preventing or treating the flu in children:

  1. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) for children as young as 2 weeks  
  2. Zanamivir (Relenza®) for children older than 5  

If your child has the flu, help him get lots of rest and drink plenty of fluids. He may not want to eat much. Try giving him small meals to help his body get better.

If your baby seems uncomfortable from a fever, ask her provider if you can give her infant’s or children’s acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or ibuprofen (Motrin® or Advil®). Don’t give her aspirin without checking with her health care provider. Aspirin can cause a rare but life-threatening liver disorder called Reye syndrome in children with certain illnesses, such as colds, the flu and chickenpox. If your baby has a cough or a cold, don’t give her over-the-counter cough and cold medicine. These are medicines you can buy without a prescription from a health care provider. The American Academy of Pediatrics says these medicines can cause serious health problems for children. Talk to your baby’s provider before you give your baby any kind of medicine. 

How can you and your baby keep from spreading the flu? 

Everyone older than 6 months needs to get the flu vaccine. This means you, especially if you have or take care of a baby younger than 6 months. Babies this age are too young to get the flu vaccine. Getting the vaccine can help keep you from spreading the flu.

If you or your baby has the flu, you can spread it to others. Here’s how to help prevent the flu from spreading:

  • Don’t kiss your baby on or around the mouth. But a hug is a good thing!
  • Teach your child to cough or sneeze into a tissue or his arm. Throw used tissues in the trash.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before and after caring for your baby. You also can use alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Use enough hand sanitizer so that it takes at least 15 seconds for your hands to dry. 
  • Use hot, soapy water or a dishwasher to clean your baby’s dishes and utensils.
  • Don’t share any of your baby’s dishes, glasses, utensils or his toothbrush. 
  • Limit your baby’s contact with other people. 

More information

See also: Flu and pregnancyYour baby’s vaccinations

Last reviewed: September, 2015