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A profile of prematurity in

In an average week in Ohio

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2,678

babies are born

275

babies are born preterm

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Late preterm birth is between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation.

194

babies are born late preterm

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46

babies are born very preterm

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Preterm BirthOhio

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Ohio, 2007-2015

PERCENTAGE OF LIVE BIRTHS

  • In 2015, there were 14,300 preterm births in Ohio, representing 10.3% of live births.
  • In 2015, 1 in 10 babies was born preterm in Ohio.

County Rates, 2012-2015 Average

PERCENTAGE OF LIVE BIRTHS

 

Higher than OH Rate of 10.3 (28)

Between MOD 2020 goal of 8.1 and OH Rate (47)

Met or lower than MOD 2020 goal of 8.1 (13)

state table of county preterm birth rates

2017 March of Dimes Foundation
All rights reserved.

The March of Dimes aims to reduce preterm birth rates across the United States to 8.1 percent of live births by 2020. Every baby in Ohio deserves the chance to be born healthy.

  • In 2012-2015, 28 Ohio counties had a preterm birth rate higher than the state rate of 10.3%.
  • In 2012-2015, 13 Ohio counties had met the March of Dimes preterm birth rate goal of 8.1%.

Preterm Birth by Race and EthnicityOhio

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The March of Dimes is concerned about inequities in health and health care that contribute to higher rates of preterm birth among different racial and ethnic groups. ?

Percentage of live births in 2013-2015 Average that are preterm

Risk Factors for Preterm Birth

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Rather than having one cause, preterm birth seems to be triggered by multiple, interacting biologic and environmental factors. We do know that a history of preterm birth, multiple gestations, and certain uterine and/or cervical problems are the strongest risk factors for preterm birth. The factors below also contribute to preterm birth.

Maternal age

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During 2013-2015 (average) in Ohio, preterm birth rates were highest for women ages 40 and older (14.4%), followed by women under age 20 (10.7%), ages 30-39 (10.5%) and ages 20-29 (9.9%).

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Smoking

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In 2014, 24.1% of women of childbearing age reported smoking in Ohio. Smoking is an important determinant of health and a significant factor contributing to preterm births.

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Multiple births

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In Ohio in 2015, 8.3% of singleton births were preterm, compared to 63.0% of multiple births. Multiple births represent 3.6% of live births in Ohio. Current multifetal pregnancy is one of the most consistently identified risk factors for preterm birth.

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Birth spacing

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Birth spacing, or inter-pregnancy interval, is the timing between a live birth and the beginning of the next pregnancy. Birth spacing of less than 18 months increases the risk of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes. In the United States, 33.1% of pregnancies with a prior live birth have a birth spacing of less than 18 months.

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Obesity

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While obesity does not directly cause preterm birth, it does increase rates of medical complications (e.g., hypertension, diabetes) that contribute to preterm birth. In Ohio, 28.1% of women of childbearing age were obese in 2014.

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Health insurance coverage

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In 2015, about 1 in 13 women of childbearing age (7.8%) was uninsured in Ohio. Health care before, during and after pregnancy can help identify and manage conditions that contribute to preterm birth.

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Other contributing factors

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Other factors contributing to preterm birth include: infection (especially genito-urinary), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, late or no prenatal care, alcohol and illicit drug use, and social determinants of health. Socioeconomic status at both the individual and community level (e.g., income/poverty, job status, education) as well as psychosocial factors (e.g., chronic stress, lack of social support) are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth.

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Consequences of Preterm Birth

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Prematurity is the leading cause of newborn death and disability among infants, including developmental delays, chronic respiratory problems, and vision and hearing impairment. In addition to the health consequences of preterm birth, the emotional and economic impact of preterm birth on families is too high.

  • In Ohio in 2013, the infant mortality rate due to prematurity/low birthweight was 139.2 per 100,000 live births, which accounts for 19.0% (1,019) of all infant deaths.

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Preterm-related and other leading causes of infant deaths,
United States, 2013


Preterm-related cause of death

Not preterm-related cause of death

36.3%

infant deaths are preterm-related?

When causes of death related to preterm birth are grouped together, preterm-related causes account for more than one third (36.3%) of infant deaths in the United States. (See figure.)

$26.2B

Associated with preterm birth

In 2005, the annual societal economic cost (medical, educational, and lost productivity) associated with preterm birth in the United States was at least $26.2 billion.

March of Dimes National Prematurity Campaign

The Mission of the March of Dimes is to improve the health of babies by preventing birth defects, preterm birth, and infant mortality. Prematurity is the leading cause of newborn death and a major determinant of illness and disability among infants. The March of Dimes leads the national Prematurity Campaign, with the goal of achieving equity and demonstrated improvements in preterm birth. For more information, visit marchofdimes.org/prematurity

Sources

National Center for Health Statistics, final natality data.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Prematurity risk factors compiled by March of Dimes available at marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/preterm-labor-and-birth.aspx.

IPUMS-USA, University of Minnesota, ipums.org. American Community Survey, US Census Bureau.

Blumenshine P, Egerter S, Barclay CJ, et al. Socioeconomic disparities in adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2010;39(3):263-72.

National Center for Health Statistics, period linked birth/infant death data.

Long-term health effects of preterm birth compiled by March of Dimes available at marchofdimes.org/complications/long-term-health-effects-of-premature-birth.aspx

Institute of Medicine. 2007. Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.